Add to Wishlist. USD 3. Sign in to Purchase Instantly. Explore Now. Buy As Gift. Overview The third full length Daganu novel, The Unchanging Heavens takes Joe, Kristy and Becky deeper into the magic and mystery of Daganu than ever before, as they have to procure rare talismans to enter the feared land of Bistami Stulba and try to help Emily and Chen find happiness, rather than exile. Product Details About the Author. Haunted by visions of the creature, "especially when the moon is gibbous and waning", he describes his fears for the future of humanity: I cannot think of the deep sea without shuddering at the nameless things that may at this very moment be crawling and floundering on its slimy bed, worshipping their ancient stone idols and carving their own detestable likenesses on submarine obelisks of water-soaked granite.
I dream of a day when they may rise above the billows to drag down in their reeking talons the remnants of puny, war-exhausted mankind --of a day when the land shall sink, and the dark ocean floor shall ascend amidst universal pandemonium. With the drug that has given him "transient surcease" running out, he declares himself ready to do himself in; the narrative is revealed to be a suicide note. The story ends with the narrator rushing to the window as he hears "a noise at the door, as of some immense slippery body lumbering against it" , dark matter, dating, DCCXVIII , deem, delicious, diagnosis, Diamond Sutra a Mahayana Buddhist sutra from the Prajnaparamita, or "Perfection of Wisdom" genre, and emphasizes the practice of non-abiding and non-attachment.
The Diamond sutra is one of the most influential Mahayana sutras in East Asia, and is a key object of devotion and study in Zen Buddhism. A copy of the Chinese version of Diamond Sutra, found among the Dunhuang manuscripts in the early 20th century by Aurel Stein, was dated back to May 11, It is, in the words of the British Library, "the earliest complete survival of a dated printed book" , Diaspora, direction, disguised, dislike, divine right, dragon slayer, dream, eclipse, Edward, emblems, et lux perpetua luceat eis Latin: "and let perpetual light shine upon them" , evacuation, exacting, exhale, F is the sixth musical note, face us, fairy tale, faithful, false Christs, fisher kings, fled, forged, freak, from this day forward, Geomancy a method of divination that interprets markings on the ground or the patterns formed by tossed handfuls of soil, rocks, or sand.
The most prevalent form of divinatory geomancy involves interpreting a series of 16 figures formed by a randomized process that involves recursion followed by analyzing them, often augmented with astrological interpretations. Once practiced by people from all social classes, it was one of the most popular forms of divination throughout Africa and Europe in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.
Books and treatises on geomancy were published up until the 17th century when most occult traditions fell out of popularity. In Renaissance magic, geomancy was classified as one of the seven "forbidden arts", along with necromancy, hydromancy, aeromancy, pyromancy, chiromancy palmistry , and spatulamancy scapulimancy.
Geomancy is dismissed by the scientific community and skeptics as being superstition , get a grip, get ready to rock, Ghazal a poetic form consisting of rhyming couplets and a refrain, with each line sharing the same meter. A ghazal may be understood as a poetic expression of both the pain of loss or separation and the beauty of love in spite of that pain. The form is ancient, originating in Arabic poetry in Arabia long before the birth of Islam. The term ghazal is of North African and Middle Eastern origin.
Its root term in Arabic is " gh-zl " and is derived from the Arabian panegyric qasida. The structural requirements of the ghazal are similar in stringency to those of the Petrarchan sonnet. In style and content it is a genre that has proved capable of an extraordinary variety of expression around its central themes of love and separation , glass tower of Eribo, globe, granted, grease, Had, half, hand, hand gun, hang on these words, happy birthday, happy meal, healthy body, heart to heart, heaven, heed our warnings, hellish abyss, he'll set your heart on fire, higher, Hildesvini "battle swine" is Freyja's boar In Norse mythology.
In the poem, Freyja is searching for the ancestry of her protege, Ottar. Freyja rides on her boar Hildisvini, who is in fact Ottar in disguise. They meet Hyndla who is a seeress. Freyja succeeds in forcing Hyndla to tell Ottar about his ancestors. Snorri Sturluson also records that among boar-names for helmets was Hildisvini, the helmet of Ali. This helmet was among the things that were taken by the Swedish king Adils after his victory at the Battle on the Ice of Lake Vanern , honourable, hoo-hah, Horus is hidden, hurricane, husband, I have digested your sun, IAO trigram, idiotic, illiterate, imaginary, impelling, incense, indiscretion, Internet Service Provider, invade, is this when it will happen?
First of all there are Triple deities, which manifest as any goddess who is described as threefold, or appears in groups of three. And then there is this new idea of the Triple Goddess as there is in Neopaganism, a concept in Wicca and other Neopagan belief systems: sometimes a universal, global, "Great Goddess" who is threefold; sometimes a single goddess as maiden, matron and crone; and sometimes three sisters , tweaked, understandeth, vincit omnia veritas Latin: "Truth conquers all" , vivification, Watari Garasu Japanese: Raven , watchman, we are immortal, what should we do about this?
Witchcraft is a complex concept that varies culturally and societally; therefore, it is difficult to define with precision and cross-cultural assumptions about the meaning or significance of the term should be applied with caution. Witchcraft often occupies a religious, divinatory or medicinal role, and is often present within societies and groups whose cultural framework includes a magical world view.
Ascetics may withdraw from the world for their practices or continue to be part of their society, but typically adopt a frugal lifestyle, characterised by the renunciation of material possessions and physical pleasures, and time spent fasting while concentrating on the practice of religion or reflection upon spiritual matters. Asceticism has been historically observed in many religious traditions, including Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism.
The practitioners of these religions eschewed worldly pleasures and led an abstinent lifestyle, in the pursuit of redemption or spirituality , ash tree of mettle, Asherah, attained, Azalea, bagels, barber, bated, Bathusba, be about my secret house AL III:9 , beef, behold, Belet-Ili, believe, beware this evil, black crow, blameless, blender, Blind Nothing AL I , Blood God The battle-cry of the followers of Khorne reflects his desire for wanton violence: "Blood for the Blood God!
Skulls for the Throne of Khorne! In some sources she was the daughter of Coronus and Zeuxo. The boast of Cassiopeia was that both she and her daughter Andromeda were more beautiful than all the Nereids, the nymph-daughters of the sea god Nereus. This brought the wrath of Poseidon, ruling god of the sea, upon the kingdom of Ethiopia. Accounts differ as to whether Poseidon decided to flood the whole country or direct the sea monster Cetus to destroy it.
In either case, trying to save their kingdom, Cepheus and Cassiopeia consulted a wise oracle, who told them that the only way to appease the sea gods was to sacrifice their daughter , cat fight, centerfold, chagrin, cheater, chilling, Claude, Compass and Square or, more correctly, a square and a set of compasses joined together is the single most identifiable symbol of Freemasonry.
Both the square and compasses are architect's tools and are used in Masonic ritual as emblems to teach symbolic lessons. Some Lodges and rituals explain these symbols as lessons in conduct: for example, Duncan's Masonic Monitor of explains them as: "The square, to square our actions; The compasses, to circumscribe and keep us within bounds with all mankind". However, as Freemasonry is non-dogmatic, there is no general interpretation for these symbols or any Masonic symbol that is used by Freemasonry as a whole. In English speaking jurisdictions the Square and Compasses are often depicted with the letter "G" in the center.
The letter is interpreted to represent different words jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Among the most widely accepted interpretations are that: [G] stands for God, and is to remind Masons that God is at the center of Freemasonry. In this context it can also stand for Great Architect of the Universe a reference to God. In a different context, the letter stands for Geometry, described as being the "noblest of sciences", and "the basis upon which the superstructure of Freemasonry is erected" , credibility, culminated, Cymbeline, dances, death is not the answer, deceit, despairing, diamond, ding dong, discourage, disfigured, dismember, doctrinaire, drained dry, dread, dreamtime, due date, Dung it about with enginery of war!
In Valhalla, the einherjar eat their fill of the nightly-resurrecting beast Saehrimnir, and are brought their fill of mead from the udder of the goat Heidrun by valkyries.
The Portal Project: Daganu Ombibus 1
The einherjar prepare daily for the events of Ragnarok, when they will advance for an immense battle at the field of Vigridr; the battle which the "ein" here meaning single-time refers to. Heimdall occasionally returned the best of Einherjar to Midgard or Jotunheim with the purpose of killing giants, but they were forbidden to talk with the living , elevated, eliminate, Eric Clapton, eternal reward, etheral, exceed, eye in triangle, fallacy, families, fierce, forever and ever, forfeited, Gaia, Ganymede, gematria Greek: meaning geometry, is an Assyro-Babylonian-Greek system of code and numerology later adopted into Jewish culture that assigns numerical value to a word or phrase in the belief that words or phrases with identical numerical values bear some relation to each other or bear some relation to the number itself as it may apply to nature, a person's age, the calendar year, or the like.
Similar systems, some of which were derived from or inspired by Hebrew gematria, have been used in other languages and cultures. The best-known example of Hebrew gematria is the word Chai "alive" , which is composed of two letters that using the assignments in the Mispar gadol table shown below add up to This has made 18 a "lucky number" among Jews, and gifts in multiples of 18 are very popular , get a clue, girlfriend, God is not a God, God is your belief, Graviora manent Latin: "heavier things remain" from Virgil's Aeneid ; more severe things await, the worst is yet to come , grief stricken, habitual, hallucinations, he alone, head, high five, how thou didst come hither?
The band's discography has grown to thirty-eight albums, including sixteen studio albums, eleven live albums, four EPs, and seven compilations , irretrievable, Jihad, Lady Sage, Lokapalas Sanskrit and Pali for "guardian of the world", has different uses depending on whether it is found in a Hindu or Buddhist context.
In Hinduism, lokapala refers to the Guardians of the Directions associated with the four cardinal directions. In Buddhism, lokapala refers to the Four Heavenly Kings, and to other protector spirits, whereas the Guardians of the Directions are referred to as the 'dikpalas' , luggage, marijuana Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names, is a preparation of the Cannabis plant intended for use as a psychoactive drug or medicine.
The main psychoactive part of cannabis is tetrahydrocannabinol THC ; one of known compounds in the plant, including at least 65 other cannabinoids. Cannabis can be used by smoking, vaporization, within food, or as an extract. Cannabis is often used for its mental and physical effects, such as a "high" or "stoned" feeling, a general change in perception, euphoria heightened mood , and an increase in appetite.
Short term side effects may include a decrease in short-term memory, dry mouth, impaired motor skills, red eyes, and feelings of paranoia or anxiety. Long term side effects may include addiction, decreased mental ability in those who started as teenagers, and behavioral problems in children whose mothers used cannabis during pregnancy. Onset of effects is within minutes when smoked and about 30 to 60 minutes when cooked and eaten. They last for between two and six hours , Mastercard, meander, meaningful, messhead, Migdal a Hebrew word for tower , neither neither The Neither Neither Principle is essentially neutralizing energetic phenomena in your energy bodies by affirming their existence, affirming the opposite of their existence, then denying both.
This is difficult because as you mention the myriad energetic phenomena, you must feel them in their entirety. It's wise to start with a list of traits to neutralize. The bigger they are, the better and harder they are to neutralize , obedient, ogdoad, over my dead body, pingala In regard to Kundalini yoga, there are three important nadis: ida, pingala, and sushumna. Ida "comfort" lies to the left of the spine, whereas pingala "tawny brown ", "golden", "solar" is to the right side of the spine, mirroring the ida.
Sushumna "very gracious", "kind" runs along the spinal cord in the center, through the seven chakras. Under the correct conditions the energy of kundalini is said to uncoil and enter sushumna through the brahma dwara or gate of Brahma at the base of the spine. The Shiva Samhita treatise on yoga states, for example, that out of , nadis 14 are particularly important, and among them, the three just mentioned are the three most vital , policeman, preacher, Rabbi a teacher of Torah.
This title derives from the Hebrew word rabi, meaning "My Master" irregular plural rabanim , which is the way a student would address a master of Torah. The word "master" rav literally means "great one" , random paradox, redneck, resistance is futile, Ribald, sacred geometry ascribes symbolic and sacred meanings to certain geometric shapes and certain geometric proportions.
It is associated with the belief that God is the geometer of the world. The geometry used in the design and construction of religious structures such as churches, temples, mosques, religious monuments, altars, and tabernacles has sometimes been considered sacred. Germain Pointing Dog is a medium-large breed of dog, a versatile hunter used for hunting as a gun dog and pointer as well as for hunting other small game. Braque is a term meaning pointing dogs. Scott Fitzgerald that follows a cast of characters living in the fictional town of West Egg on prosperous Long Island in the summer of The story primarily concerns the young and mysterious millionaire Jay Gatsby and his quixotic passion and obsession for the beautiful former debutante Daisy Buchanan.
Considered to be Fitzgerald's magnum opus, The Great Gatsby explores themes of decadence, idealism, resistance to change, social upheaval, and excess, creating a portrait of the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties that has been described as a cautionary tale regarding the American Dream , The Great Potentate, The Green One a sculpture, or other representation of a face surrounded by or made from leaves. Branches or vines may sprout from the nose, mouth, nostrils or other parts of the face and these shoots may bear flowers or fruit.
Commonly used as a decorative architectural ornament, Green Men are frequently found in carvings on both secular and ecclesiastical buildings. The Green Man motif has many variations. Found in many cultures from many ages around the world, the Green Man is often related to natural vegetative deities.
It is primarily interpreted as a symbol of rebirth, representing the cycle of growth each spring. It is also used less commonly as a cough suppressant and as an anti-diarrheal. Heroin is used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects. Frequent and regular administration is associated with tolerance and physical dependence. In some countries it is available for prescription to long-term users as a form of opioid replacement therapy alongside counseling.
Administered intravenously by injection, heroin is two to four times more potent than morphine and is faster in its onset of action. Illicit heroin is sometimes available in a matte-white powder freebase form. Because of its lower boiling point, the freebase form of heroin is smokable. It is the 3,6-diacetyl ester of morphine. Heroin was first made by C. Alder Wright in by adding two acetyl groups to the molecule morphine, a natural product of the opium poppy. It is generally illegal to manufacture, possess, or sell heroin without a license.
However, the production rate in Mexico rose sixfold from to , making Mexico the second-largest opium producer in the world , disintegrated, divine conception, draconian, draconian ways, eagle eye to eye, egomania, ego death, electric predators, encouraged, enveloped in light, ever increasing, eye in the triangle, failed, fecundate, fell asleep, final finish, find out who the real idiot is, fireball, For I am perfect AL II , force of all, fragmented, freedom is the law, fucking Christians, gain proper fear, Galilee a region in northern Israel.
Historically, the part of Southern Lebanon south of the east-west section of the Litani River also belonged to the region of Galilee, but the present article mainly deals with the Israeli part of the region , gambling, gas pedal, George Walker Bush born July 6, is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from to and 46th Governor of Texas from to The eldest son of Barbara and George H.
Bush, he was born in New Haven, Connecticut. After graduating from Yale University in and Harvard Business School in , he worked in oil businesses. He married Laura Welch in and ran unsuccessfully for the House of Representatives shortly thereafter. He later co-owned the Texas Rangers baseball team before defeating Ann Richards in the Texas gubernatorial election. He was elected president in after a close and controversial election against Al Gore, becoming the fourth president to be elected while receiving fewer popular votes nationwide than an opponent.
He is the second president to have been the son of a former president, the first having been John Quincy Adams. He is also the brother of Jeb Bush, a former Governor of Florida and former candidate for the Republican presidential nomination in the presidential election. Eight months into Bush's first term as president, the September 11 terrorist attacks occurred. Bush responded with what became known as the Bush Doctrine: launching a "War on Terror", an international military campaign which included the war in Afghanistan, in , and the Iraq War, in He also promoted policies on the economy, health care, education, social security reform, and amending the Constitution to prohibit same-sex marriage.
His tenure saw national debates on immigration, Social Security, electronic surveillance, and torture , get a life, hallucinogen, he touched me, hibernating, high elevation, how about a little electrostimulation? It came about largely due to the efforts of Prince Paul. The main corpus of the Merkabah literature was composed in Israel in the period — CE, although later references to the Chariot tradition can also be found in the literature of the Chassidei Ashkenaz in the Middle Ages.
A major text in this tradition is the Maaseh Merkabah Works of the Chariot. The noun merkabah "thing to ride in, cart" is derived from the consonantal root r-k-b with the general meaning "to ride". The word "chariot" is found 44 times in the Masoretic text of the Hebrew Bible — most of them referring to normal chariots on earth, and although the concept of the Merkabah is associated with Ezekiel's vision , the word is not explicitly written in Ezekiel 1.
However, when left untranslated, in English the Hebrew term merkabah relates to the throne-chariot of God in prophetic visions. It is most closely associated with the vision in Ezekiel chapter 1 of the four-wheeled vehicle driven by four hayyot "living creatures" , each of which has four wings and the four faces of a man, lion, ox, and eagle or vulture , Michael Saint Michael the Archangel or Micha'el is an archangel in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Michael is mentioned three times in the Book of Daniel, once as a "great prince who stands up for the children of your people".
The idea that Michael was the advocate of the Jews became so prevalent; that in spite of the rabbinical prohibition against appealing to angels as intermediaries between God and his people, Michael came to occupy a certain place in the Jewish liturgy. In the Epistle of Jude Michael is specifically referred to as "the archangel Michael". Christian sanctuaries to Michael appeared in the 4th century, when he was first seen as a healing angel, and then over time as a protector and the leader of the army of God against the forces of evil.
By the 6th century, devotions to Archangel Michael were widespread both in the Eastern and Western Churches. Over time, teachings on Michael began to vary among Christian denominations , minor arcana, misleading, modified, Mr. Roger's Neighborhood, Muladhara English: "root support" or root chakra is one of the seven primary chakras according to Hindu tantrism. It may be represented by the color red, but its root square form is usually yellow , Naked Lunch sometimes The Naked Lunch is a novel by American writer William S.
Burroughs, originally published in The book is structured as a series of loosely connected vignettes. Burroughs stated that the chapters are intended to be read in any order. The reader follows the narration of junkie William Lee, who takes on various aliases, from the US to Mexico, eventually to Tangier and the dreamlike Interzone. The vignettes which Burroughs called "routines" are drawn from Burroughs' own experience in these places, and his addiction to drugs heroin, morphine, and while in Tangier, majoun a strong marijuana confection as well as a German opioid, brand name Eukodol, of which he wrote frequently.
The novel was included in Time magazine's " Best English-language Novels from to ". In , David Cronenberg released a film of the same name based upon the novel and other Burroughs writings , Neanderthals named after the Valley of the Neander River area in Germany, were a species or subspecies of human in the genus Homo which became extinct between 40, and 28, years ago.
They were closely related to modern humans, having DNA over Neanderthals are generally classified by paleontologists as the species Homo neanderthalensis, having separated from the Homo sapiens lineage , years ago, or alternatively as a subspecies of Homo sapiens Homo sapiens neanderthalensis. Several cultural assemblages have been linked to the Neanderthals in Europe. The earliest, the Mousterian stone tool culture, dates to about , years ago.
Late Mousterian artifacts were found in Gorham's Cave on the south-facing coast of Gibraltar , pandemic an epidemic of infectious disease that has spread through human populations across a large region; for instance multiple continents, or even worldwide. A widespread endemic disease that is stable in terms of how many people are getting sick from it is not a pandemic. Further, flu pandemics generally exclude recurrences of seasonal flu. Throughout history, there have been a number of pandemics, such as smallpox and tuberculosis.
One of the most devastating pandemics was the Black Death, killing over 75 million people in The most recent pandemics include the HIV pandemic as well as the and H1N1 pandemics , pandemoplasmodium The ultimate fusion of the entire earth into one giant mass of writhing human flesh with no remaining space for anything but humanity drowning in itself and its waste products , parchment of our life, perfect trust and perfect love, phase space, radioactive, relationships require much effort, religionless religion, reprimanded, ripping chaos apart, sacrilege The violation or profanation of anything sacred or held sacred.
He also held the titles of Count Palatine of the Rhine, Duke of Bavaria, Duke of Franconia, and Duke in Swabia , Mahakali literally translated as Great Kali, is the Hindu Goddess of time and death, considered to be the consort of Shiva the God of consciousness, and the basis of Reality and existence. According to the Markendeya Purana she is an aspect of the goddess Durga. Mahakali in Sanskrit is etymologically the feminized variant of Mahakala or Great Time which is interpreted also as Death , an epithet of the God Shiva in Hinduism.
Mahakali is the form of the Goddess Durga Parvati beyond time, Kali, who is the force of the anger of Durga and is an aspect of Durga or Adi parashakti, and therefore her color is black. She is believed to be the greatest aspect of Kali whom many Hindus hold as a Divine Mother , Mundus vult decipi, ergo decipiatur Latin: "The world wants to be deceived, so let it be deceived" , one hell of a time, partake of this with thanksgiving, peaceably, proclaimed his law, reasonable doubt, reclaimed, reincarnated, sacrificing, son and daughters of light, the axle of the wheel AL II:7 , the cosmic cube, the dark powers are not the all, The Eye in the Triangle An Interpretation of Aleister Crowley by Israel Regardie originally published in with an introduction by Robert Anton Wilson.
This is the masterful biography of the Magus Aleister Crowley, written by the one person most qualified to write it. Israel Regardie was a friend and student of Crowley's, and served as his personal secretary for some time. In this book, Regardie manages to write a fair and balanced view of Crowley. It is an intelligent and insightful look into Crowley's life, Magick and Mysticism.
Regardie interprets all this from the wisdom of experience. A member of the Golden Dawn, O. For the motif of the sleeping Kronos, cf. Puech Paris For this passage, see ch. First Waszink considers and rejects the possibility of finding an explanation in Egyptian theology. About the origin of the idea that Uranos, too, received such visions, our material does not admit of any definite statement, but, since the condition of the two fallen kings of the gods was very similar, a transferring of Kronos' visions to Uranos could easily take place'.
And by relating it to various other motifs in Aristotle's lost works he has shown that we cannot, on the basis of what we know about the Corpus Aristotelicum, simply brush this theme aside. The atmosphere and setting of Aristotle's dialogues was no doubt very different from that of the works which have come down to us. Nevertheless, Waszink may have been premature in concluding his enquiry.
If the way he interprets Plutarch's description of the 'dreaming Kronos' is wrong, as Chemiss has shown, then we must ask whether Chemiss's correction has consequences for the explanation of the 'dreaming Kronos' motif in Aristotle. Therefore we propose to take up Waszink's enquiry where he left off, in order to see if it can help us penetrate further into the labyrinth of the fragments of Aristotle's lost works. We begin by establishing that Plutarch's myth of the De facie does not make Zeus dependent on Kronos, but Kronos dependent on Zeus.
The knowledge thus acquired is relayed by Kronos to the daemons around 14 15 16 17 In Plutarch's divine hierarchy he is subordinated to Zeus and can only supply information to the daemons involved in world government so far as he himself participates in the counsel of Zeus and is not prevented by his Titanic passions. In his De facie myth, therefore, Plutarch uses an elaboration of the Kronos motif which departs from the Neoplatonist tradition. Bos, art. See Plotinus, Enn. For his philosophical use of the divine triad, Plotinus is able to link up with Plato's Phdr e4, where in the myth of the soul Zeus is introduced as the 'great leader' of the celestial regions.
In his playful series of etymologies in the Cratylus, Plato connects Kronos with the status of the nous b and in the myth of the Politicus he makes Kronos the vigilant and energetic world archon. From this one might infer that Plato paralleled Hesiod's chronological series of supreme gods with his own range of ontological levels. In doing so, he appears to have avoided any suggestion of atrocities committed among the gods themselves.
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Armstrong London 'The shocking and horrifying tale told by Hesiod in the Theogony of Ouranos, Kronos and Zeus, roused Plato's deepest aversion. Such a tale, he thought, should either be left buried forever in the deepest silence, or at least kept strictly for a close circle of initiates', with reference to Rep. We shall start with an analysis of the information found in the Middle Platonist Plutarch,1 in the myth which concludes his treatise De facie in orbe lunae.
Waszink established between this work and Tertullian's statement about a dreaming Saturn in Aristotle. It seems legitimate to search in Plutarch, too, for material with an Aristotelian origin. Plutarch was an author of wide reading and broad interests. We frequently find explicit or implicit references to and quotations of older philosophers in his work.
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Nor are these confined to representatives of the Platonic tradition. As we noted before,3 his work repeatedly refers to Aristotle's lost works. Understandably, therefore, O. Gigon has predicted that a study of the De facie myth in the context of Plutarch's entire oeuvre will produce results relevant to the reconstruction of Aristotle's Eudemus. He dates Plutarch's life at around AD op.
Bernardakis, vol. Cherniss and W. Helmbold London ; Plutarch, Das Mondgesicht, introd. W afd. Amsterdam ; W. Long eds. Gigon, 'Prolegomena to an edition of the Eudemus9 in I. During, G. Owen eds. This author also wishes to take other 'transcendent' myths in Plutarch into consideration, for instance those in Def.
Summary of the treatise The treatise in question is a dialogue between eight people. Then the question is asked whether the moon is inhabited by living beings. Finally, a myth is told about the moon as the abode of nonincarnated souls. This abode, it seems, is not a 'terminus', but rather a temporary stop, a sorting-place and clearing-house for the souls who have been freed of their earthly bodies. The theory about living beings on the moon For us the most interesting part of Plutarch's treatise starts at chapter 25 with a monologue by Lamprias,7 the main speaker, who to a large extent seems to represent the views of Plutarch and the Platonists.
He argues that the moon is inhabited by living beings of a higher order than earthly mortals. The introduction to his speech is a typical 'reversal of perspective'8 linked to a 'reversal of values'. The reader is as it were transported to a place from where he enjoys a quite unfamiliar, superhuman view of the condition of earthly mortals, including himself. This 'reversal of perspective' is a motif which has been developed and avidly exploited in the philosophical tradition. It is also typical of philosophy as such. For it is the pretension of philosophy to offer man the true perspective to which he has hitherto been blind.
Such a perspective obviously has much to offer: it beckons us with the promise of unknown, surprising, eminently appealing vistas.
But it also poses a structural problem inasmuch as it pretends to give a god's-eye point of view, to mere mortals. This same motif now is used by Plutarch in his De facie in orbe lunae. In his imagination, the reader is put in the position of the moon-beings; from this point of view, his own earthly existence seems devaluated to an existence in Hades and Tartarus, the caverns of the underworld as described by Homer and Hesiod. From the point of view of the moon-beings, the moon is the 'real earth', occupying an intermediate position between the home of the gods and what for them is the 'underworld'.
For a detailed analysis of the contents, see H. The expression 'the face of the moon' already occurs in Arist. In order to indicate the nature of this 'sublunary' existence and the difference in level between life on the moon and life on earth, Lamprias aptly quotes the verses in which the ancient poets described the horrors of Tartarus10 and the distance between the earth and Tartarus.
According to Lamprias, the view that no life is possible on the moon may be due to the fact that our mortal condition prevents us from seeing that much higher forms of life than our own are possible in the universe. The myth of the dreaming Kronos and the non-incarnated souls At this point, however, Lamprias is suddenly interrupted by Sulla,12 who, as was announced at the beginning of the treatise, will recount a myth. This fear may seem unwarranted at first sight, since Sulla is going to talk about islands lying beyond the pillars of Hercules and beyond Britannia, and about a large continent lying even further.
But the reader will readily see that, regardless of whether a vertical or horizontal displacement is concerned, the result is a comparable change of perspective: from both points of view it is possible to spy the flaws and defects of existence on earth. Sulla does not, of course, possess the knowledge of these exotic regions at first hand. He is only transmitting what was revealed to him by a stranger from those parts, whom curiosity had driven to our world. On one of these, according to the ancient traditions of the beings who live there,16 Kronos was imprisoned by Zeus and put into the But in any case we are not given the impression that the inhabitants of yonder 'continent' are so keen on the trip that they volunteer in large numbers.
Drawing by lots here is not a means of selecting a limited crew from a crowd of enthusiasts, but of meeting the quota. From the entire population a few individuals are chosen to fulfil the community's duty to maintain the cult of Kronos. The voyage to the Kronos island is a kind of military service for which one can be drafted, but from which everyone would wish to be exempted.
The expedition leaves on an astronomically determined date: as soon as the 'star of Kronos' has entered the sign of Taurus. No doubt the terminology used here quite intentionally recalls PL, Phd. The name of Briareus in the text is based on a conjecture of H. Cherniss, op.
He refers in this connection to Aelianus, Var. Rose3 fr. But he regards the story as an example of a theory about oneiromancy given in the De philos, which cannot have been held by Aristotle himself ibid. Also interesting is Euphorion's remark F. The 'pillars of Hercules' are also mentioned in Iamblichus, Protr. The latter passage also mentions islands Britannia and Ireland beyond the pillars of Hercules. The same idea is found in Mu. The figure of thirty probably refers to the revolution of the planet Saturn, the 'star of Kronos'.
It also implicitly indicates that in the period of one human generation only a few beingsfrom'beyond' find their way to the regions of the earthly mortals. Cherniss a. On the basis of what we have discussed in chapter 21 would like to suppose that there is another. The 'star of Kronos' is said to be the star 'which we call Phaenon, but they call the Nightwatchman'. The planet Saturn is here referred to by the name belonging to the series of 'light-names' apparently introduced for the planets at a certain moment in a certain context.
It suggests that the light we know and love is far less bright than what these higher beings are used to. After a difficult voyage, including a delay of ninety days, the envoys arrive at the island of Kronos, where they are the sole residents for thirty years besides the members of earlier delegations who decided to stay. It is remarkable that most of the latter apparently prefer to stay, although they are allowed to return after their period of service has elapsed.
The reason for this choice is stated as follows: 'without toil or trouble they have all things in abundance, while they are employed with sacrifices and celebrations, or with various discourse and philosophy'. Sulla goes on to describe Kronos, asleep in a deep cave that glitters like gold. He has been bound by Zeus, but not with ropes or chains: sleep is the bond with which Zeus has shackled Kronos for good.
However, like the cave which Plato described in his allegory of the human condition, the cave which is Kronos' prison has an opening in its roof. In this way there is still a measure of contact with superior divine reality. Birds fly into the cave through the opening and bring Kronos ambrosia, the exquisite fragrance of which pervades the cave and the entire explanation for the connection of Kronos and the bull.
On the problem of the date at which these names became current, see A. Bos, 'Notes on Aristotle's Mu. We concluded there that these names were probably used by Heraclides Ponticus or someone in his circle. The sequence supposedly reflects a decreasing luminosity, indicating that the action of the supreme god's power diminishes towards the centre of the universe. It should be observed that the sequence of the planets in De facie a is the same as in Mu. One may wonder to what extent this motif of the 'bonds of sleep' echoes Hesiod's description of the people of the golden race who 'died as if overcome by sleep', Op.
Death and Sleep both live, like brothers, in the darkness of Tartarus, where Kronos was imprisoned according to the account in Th. But when knowledge of the most important matters is concerned, they can only pass it down as the dream oracles of Kronos. For in his dream Kronos tells all that Zeus has thought out previously'. This traditional view of the role of the daemons is another reason for rejecting the hypothesis that the daemons convey to Zeus information which they receive from Kronos. Various editors have proposed different reconstructions. Cherniss, the author introduces two different states of being to which Kronos is subject.
These states alternate periodically during Kronos' never ending sleep: during one period, his royal and divine potential is pure and unmixed; during the other, a reflux of Titanic passions and emotions clouds his higher powers. Quite typically, Kronos does not appear to belong to the divine beings whose nature is always identical and immutable; he is prone to the influence of negative factors traditionally associated with 'the Titanic nature'. This raises the question in which of both phases Kronos' oracular activity takes place.
One might suppose that when the Titanic passions and emotions hold Kronos in thrall, they disturb his sleep and cause a kind of delirium, in which he more or less chaotically utters what is going on in his It is certainly legitimate to see a link between the birds that bring Kronos food and the dreams which Kronos receives. A remarkable detail here is that the divine food is given and brought.
In Plato's myth about the journey of the souls to the crest of the celestial roof Phdr. Perhaps there is also an allusion here to the aviary in PL, Tht. Hesiod, Op. PL, Symp. Adler, WS 31 , M. Pohlenz, NJKA 19 n. On the other hand we might suppose that the Titanic passions cause so much disruption and interference that the inspiration of Kronos by Zeus is disturbed and that his activity as an oracular deity is temporarily impossible.
The narrative goes on to explain how Sulla possesses knowledge about the island of Kronos. It was given to him by one of the beings who had accomplished the expedition from the large continent to the island of Kronos. This stranger had fulfilled his duties to the god and in the meanwhile had made an intensive study of astronomy and the philosophy of visible reality. But afterwards he was overcome by a 'kind of desire and passion'32 to see the world of the people living on 'the large island'. This is strikingly at odds with his motive for the earlier journey: there is now no question of loyally fulfilling a duty to society; mere personal desire and individual passion are involved.
Interest in natural philosophy and science seems to have made way for a touristic kind of curiosity. One might suppose that, during his period of service on the Kronos island, the stranger has been infected by the virus of the Titanic nature. Nevertheless, on landing in the world known and inhabited by the Greeks, this stranger possesses a vaster knowledge than any of the people he encounters.
Because of his exotic origin and because he is initiated in many matters unknown to ordinary mortals, the information which he supplies is of the utmost importance. And since this information also entails a proper view of the gods and the condition of human beings after death, what follows in the narration is to be regarded as 'the revelation of the stranger concerning the celestial gods and the fate of the souls of the dead'. The revelation of the stranger In particular the stranger reveals the special position of the Moon among the visible celestial gods, owing to her sovereignty over mortal life.
The moon is identified with Persephone. Together with Demeter, the Earth, she belongs to the realm of Hades, god of the underworld. But Persephone, the Moon, is situated at the edge of Hades' realm33 and is a clearing-house for the souls allowed to escape Hades' jurisdiction. This is emphatically not granted to evil and impure souls. Only the virtuous enter the sphere of the moon after their death on earth. At the The narrator praises the distinction between a bodily and a non-bodily component in man. Within the latter component, however, another dichotomy must be assumed, namely between 'soul' and 'intellect'.
This anthropology with its double dichotomy thus leads to a tripartition of man into 'body', 'soul', and 'intellect'. And just as the soul is superior to the body, the intellect is superior to the soul. These components of man each have a different origin, namely the earth, the moon, and the sun respectively.
The process in which the nous is detached from the soul is also the liberating deposition of a heterogeneous integument. But it is a process which requires time. And if they make mistakes while performing these tasks, their punishment is a new earthly existence. They have finally achieved the liberation of their nous, owing to their 'love for the image manifested in the Sun through which shines forth the desirable and beautiful and divine and blessed towards which all nature in one way or another yearns'.
This striking idea is also found in St Augustine's early work, e. De Ordine 2. TTiis passage occurs in the tenth treatise, a disquisition by Hermes Trismegistus to Asclepius entitled 'The key'. Waszink by A. The Corpus Hermeticum, as we know, is a remarkable collection of Greek treatises which cannot be dated with precision but which in any case started to leave traces of its presence at the end of the second century A.
In most of these writings, Hermes reveals to mortal humans who have not yet become 'enlightened' what this 'enlightenment' involves and how it can be acquired by mortals. In the opening treatise of the collection, the Poimandres, we are told how Hermes himself was 'initiated' and 'enlightened' by the absolute Intellect, the Poimandres. It emerges that Hermes can act as an intermediator of gnosis because, though his status and condition are human, he has arrived through divine help at the consciousness of and reactualization of his inner, divine being.
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In this, 1. Corpus Hermeticum, ed. See also Hermetica, ed. Scott Oxford 1. For an introduction to the world of the Corp. Jonas, The Gnostic religion; the message of the alien God and the beginnings of Christianity Boston , For a status quaestionis of modern research, cf. Hermes seems to represent the human ideal drawn by Plato in his famous allegory of 'the Cave', namely the man who has first climbed the difficult road of 'liberation' from the prison of the earthly condition and who subsequently, after having contemplated the intelligible Light and the Source of this Light, redescends in order to act as a messenger and interpreter of the Light for those who have stayed behind in the Cave.
Hermes announces in the treatise that god is identical with the Father and the Good. The perfect form of gnosis is the insight that the divine will is the effect of the energeia of the knowledge of the Good of itself. After this Hermes continues his revelation by describing the large difference between this intelligible light and the visible light of the sun: it reaches much farther than the light of the sun, without harmful effects, and full of immortality. However, the same words can be seen to show a remarkable similarity to the details of the Kronos myth in Plutarch's De facie. And we can also establish that they are strikingly related to themes from Aristotle's lost works.
The existence of the substances is explained here by way of the 'will to exist' of the divine Source alone. On the nature of this theology, cf. Proposed interpretations of the text The emendations introduced in our text by W. He adds the following translation: 'Even those who are able to draw "somewhat larger draughts" of the vision than others, are often made torpid by the body'. According to Scott, the perfect vision is only possible after the mind has been freed from the body. Waszink rightly rejected this gross treatment of the text. With reference to Plotinus' ecstatic experiences during his life, he claimed that the text could certainly mean that Ouranos and Kronos achieved their visions while remaining in their bodies.
And he concludes that our text, too, assumes that Ouranos and Kronos were human beings, in view of the reference to their soma. For we are told that Ouranos and Kronos received the 'most beautiful vision'. We shall have to see this against the background of the method employed in this treatise. The treatise deals with the highly divergent conditions to which souls may be subject.
It may happen that they revert to the vital principles of animals, in sea or on land. A very special category is that of the human souls. These souls possess a 'principle of immortality' because they have been transformed into daimones. The text goes on: 'And this is the most perfect glory of a soul'. On its 9. Scott, Hermetica Oxford 2. Now if Ouranos and Kronos received the 'most beautiful vision', as we read earlier, then they must belong to the gods of the 'choir of the non-erring'! In this connection it is important to remember that, according to members of the Old Academy, the 'erring' of the planets was caused by a 'clouding' of their rational faculties.
Xenocrates is known to have identified the planets with the Titans, the degraded gods who were deprived of supreme perfection and the intelligible light on account of their passions and violent crimes. But the difference in quality between the two categories must be explained by a difference in the level of knowledge. Now all these cosmic gods, like the cosmos as a whole, are 'hylic'. But this soma must not be thought of in terms of the sublunary, perishable soma.
For in the 'metabletics' of the soul described by CM. Once the nous has been purged of its old 'coverings' endymata , it acquires a 'fiery soma and roams thus through all celestial space'. Xenocrates fr. Heinze , fr. It is clear from CM. The Logos is connected with the latter two, so that in 1. When the genesis of the individual human beings is described in 1. For the interpretation of the 'coverings' of the Nous, we have to go back to CM.
We further point out that the anthropology here, with its double 'division' between body and soul on the one hand, and between soul and nous on the other, corresponds entirely with the anthropology of Plutarch's myth in the De facie. And this is also, of course, the soma which causes the celestial gods to remain 'hylic'. In the action of this celestial soma, it seems, we must locate the cause of the difference in quality and cognitive level between the planetary gods and the gods of the furthest sphere of stars.
Apparently the heavenly soma still brings about a measure of 'error' in the planets. Since this does not seem to occur in the beings of the fixed sphere, it must be assumed that in them the effects of the conjunction to the celestial soma have been reduced to nil. Just as the soul of mortals is freed from the body during sleep, so the nous of the supreme cosmic gods is free of the effects of their heavenly bodies as if it were asleep. That is the blissful fate of Ouranos and Kronos. That is also the condition which Hermes in CM.
Hermes expresses the hope that he will succeed in leaving his body 'like people who dream in their sleep without sleeping'. There can be no doubt that the entire train of thought in this passage from the CM. At no point are we forced to search for an explanation in religious or other data from non-Greek sources. Once that has been established, we are faced by the urgent question: what has induced the author of CM. Reference to a 'fable d'origine orientale' is in our opinion an objectionable stopgap solution. For this motif of the soul's liberation during the sleep of the body, cf.
The highest part of mixed beings is said in 1. The fact that Hermes was later able to write an account of his ecstasy is explained by him in 1. Equally improbable, in our opinion, is the view proposed by B. He states: 'The hermetic doctrine is the esoteric doctrine of the Egyptian priesthood'. We are therefore forced to assume a flash of originality on the part of the author of CM.
In the latter case, the only eligible authors are Xenocrates and Aristotle. If we turn for a moment from the Corpus Hermeticum back to Plutarch's Kronos myth, a number of important similarities stand out at once. In the text of Plutarch's De facie it is also clear that Kronos does not belong to the sphere of mortals but to the sphere of the daimones and the blessed, i.
Plutarch says that Kronos has a pathetic nature, and that he transmits his dream oracles to the daimones around him when or because his pathe have subsided. Once sleep has released Kronos from the grasp of his pathe, he makes contact with the perfect knowledge of Zeus. As we hope to explain in more detail further on, this is to be understood as meaning that Kronos' nous only starts to function when all the irrational influences of his psychic nature have been cancelled.
That is to say, in Plutarch's text we are concerned with the notion that the pure activity of the highest faculty becomes possible only when the prohibitive influence of the lower faculties has been annulled. The mind awakes when everything else has been silenced. But since there is no question of a perishable, earthly body in the case of Kronos, the body referred to in Plutarch's De facie, as in C. It was Aristotle who employed the notion that the sleep of the lower faculties is a condition for the arousal of the higher faculties; this emerges from the texts in Sextus Empiricus and Cicero which are usually included as fragments of Aristotle's De philosophia.
The treatise itself gives no explanation of this title. Sextus Emp. The latter fragment had already been assigned to the Eudemus by O. Gigon, art. But which door can be meant? The door of the prison of the cosmic condition, naturally! For the condition of belonging to the cosmos brings about the 'ontologische Differenz' between all beings and the Source.
In Hermetic Gnosticism, not only the mortal condition, but Physis in its entirety, in all its beauty and glory, is regarded as a 'Cave', an 'underworld', a penitentiary abode where man, but also the celestial beings, reside at a distance from the transcendent Source. That is why he can present himself as gatekeeper and keybearer. Since the highest degree of participation in the perfect vision is attributed to them too, it is implied that Hermes himself, in his role of 'transmitter' of gnosis, does not stand on an equal level with them. Perhaps we should even assume that Hermes owes his own degree of insight to what he received from these 'superiors' in the realm of gnosis.
In that case the 'transmission scheme' ofCH. We are obliged to return here to texts mentioned in chapter 1. We observed there that Tertullian thought it important to point out that Moses his view, the title merely serves to indicate that the treatise is 'a comprehensible summary' of a more extensive revelation.
According to P. See also Empedocles, DK 33B and This view is also familiar to Plotinus, Enn. Now the Corpus Hermeticum presents some of its revelations as revelations to king Ammon; other as revelations by Hermes to either Tat or Asclepius. Hermes' remark about Kronos and Ouranos can be taken to mean that their knowledge is of an even higher order than his. Moreover, the first treatise of the Corpus Hermeticum presents itself as Hermes' description of the revelation given to him by 'Poimandres',31 i.
We are also told there that this Nous produces another Nous who is creator of the world. They will certainly have to be given pride of place above Hermes. And the statement that they participate in the supreme vision suggests a ranking with the demiurgic Nous, the highest deity in the cosmos and supervisor of the seven cosmic archons.
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The all-important Herrn, are: Adv. However, others tried to find a non-Greek derivation for the name; from Sahidic Coptic, 'the witness' F. Granger ; from Egyptian, 'the mind of the Sovereign Power' F. Griffith ; again from Coptic, 'the reason of sovereignty' R. Because no early non-Greek versions of the C.
Haenchen, 'Aufbau und Theologie des Poimandres' in id. In this connection the significance of Plato's Politicus should not be neglected. There the government of the mortals is assigned to beings of superhuman stature, i. In any case it is clear that the Corpus Hermeticum presents Poimandres, Ouranos and Kronos, and Hermes as beings whose glory surpasses that of mortal man through the superior level of their knowledge.
That is why they can be qualified as divine beings33 who 'mediate' the all-embracing knowledge to beings of inferior status. In the Corpus Hermeticum, then, we find many elements of the Kronology which we encountered in Plutarch: Kronos is a cosmic divine being who at a high level possesses and mediates knowledge to inferior beings; he acquires this knowledge when he 'has passed in sleep from his corporeality', that is to say, when the interfering action of his body which must be conceived as a supralunary, psychically qualified, 'pathetic' body has been cancelled by the sleep of this body, enabling the undisturbed action of his higher faculties.
And the Kronology in both writings gives Kronos a role which is on a par with the Hesiodic conception of Kronos as subjected, imprisoned, and 'bound'. By recalling violent crimes among the gods, this tradition distinguishes itself from the tradition in Plato, and from the tradition current with the Neoplatonists under Plotinus. There Ouranos and Kronos represent metaphysical beings, the first and second hypostasis respectively, and both are superior to Zeus, the representative of the World- soul. Kronos as the ruler of Heimarmene in Tatian In connection with the Hermetic tradition about Ouranos and Kronos, we also wish to mention a striking passage in Tatian's Oratio ad Graecos, which dates from the second half of the second century A.
Part of this work consists in a sharp attack on Greek mythology and astrology. While summing up a series of incongruities and absurdities, Tatian poses the question: 'How did the fettered Kronos, who was thrown out of his kingdom, become established as a disposer of fate? How can kingdoms be assigned by one who has no kingdom himself? Whittaker's explanation, which identifies Kronos with the planet Armstrong London ; and chapter 3 above. Whittaker Oxford 9. Saturn, is perhaps somewhat precipitate. Nor is there, as far as we know, a special connection between the planet Saturn and earthly kings.
The planet Jupiter is more eligible for such a role. We are confronted in Tatian by a conception which shows close similarities with that of the Corpus Hermeticum discussed before. There, in C. And in C. But in the Corpus Hermeticum as we have it, the 'dreaming Kronos' is nowhere explicitly identified with the cosmic demiurge. Moreover, Tatian talks about a 'fettered Kronos', and this is not mentioned in the Corpus Hermeticum either. The big question is how we should explain Tatian's conception of the 'shackled world archon Kronos'. It seems impossible that he himself imaginatively combined old mythical themes at this point, since his whole aim was to demonstrate the confusions and internal contradictions of the pagan-Greek conceptions of god.
We might consider the possibility that he knew a Hermetic treatise which we no longer possess. In that case, at any rate, this passage in Tatian is one of the earliest testimonies of Hermetic literature. However, if Aristotle also introduced a world archon Kronos in one of his lost works, in a polemic against the myth of Plato's Politicus, and if this work presented Kronos as shackled by the bonds of sleep, then it is more natural to see the passage in Tatian as a reminiscence of this Aristotelian work.
In that case it would even be advisable to include this text, together with the text in Tertullian, De anima 46, in collections of the fragments of Aristotle ' s lost works. Another reason for tracing back Tatian's remark about Kronos to Orphic traditions and mythical-philosophical traditions inspired by Orphism, as we were able to do in the case of Aristotle's Eudemus, is a short remark made by Tatian in chapter 9: 'Dionysus ruled over the Thebans as a tyrant, Kronos killed the tyrant'.
PL, Phdr. Of man it is said in 1. Finally, we note that Tatian introduces the figure of Kronos in a context of astrological determinism and fatalism. From here a link is easily established with the province of astrology, prophecy, and divination. Nevertheless, it is too interesting to pass over. We are referring to the magic square made up of five words of five letters each, with the following text:. In the Latinist D. Kuijper devoted his inaugural lecture to this text, which has been found in a large number of locations and in any case dates back to the Roman period.
For the locations and for previous attempts at interpretation, we refer to Kuijper's lecture. It is interesting to see how this theory exploded in , when the same text turned up under the volcanic ash of the ruins in Pompeii. Scholars agreed on the virtual impossibility of a Latin text functioning as a Christian identification code in 79 AD, the year that the Vesuvius erupted.
Kuijper ended his oration with the following, rather negative conclusion: 'Any search for a meaning in the ROTAS square is built on quicksand and is a waste of time'. Kuijper, Het magisch vierkant in Pompeii Amsterdam, V. Now that would seem to be the case, in our view, if the name of Saturn was heard in the word SATOR and if this divine figure was considered the Lord of all the celestial spheres and of Heimarmene.
In that case one might suspect that the riddle was intended as a border document for the soul seeking its way through the realm of the cosmic archons. The fact is that in such a word game aesthetic interests prevail over linguistic or grammatical ones. Although we would not gladly stake our life on the above conjectures, we can establish that if such an explanation for the popularity of theriddlemay be considered, this implies that in 79 A. D Saturn or Kronos was already acknowledged as a supreme cosmic deity. A sleeping Kronos in Philo ofByblos Finally, we would like to mention a passage in the 'Phoenician history' written by Philo of Byblos and recently published in a new edition with a commentary by A.
Appreciation of its value has fluctuated considerably. For Philo pretends that his text derives from the Phoenician Sanchuniaton and that it dates back to the period before the Trojan war. Prior to experts unanimously assumed that Philo had drawn on later sources, but this opinion was drastically revised after the discoveries of ancient Semitic texts in Ugarit. Because of the many striking similarities between Philo's chronicle and these texts, scholars started to take Philo's account much more seriously and began to allow for the possibility that his information was in fact very old.